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The goal of the research project is to assess social conditions this population faces in their communities that lead to incarceration and how the criminalization of women, girls, and gender non-conforming individuals correlates with trauma.


We find that women, girls, and gender non-conforming individuals who have been arrested and incarcerated are certain

to have experienced one or more of the following at home – either currently or at an early age: physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation due to incarceration or violence, violence, and substance abuse.


After being arrested they are further traumatized by having to abide by largely male prison standards and the challenges that come with incarceration. With no treatment, many are left unprepared and unable to recover from trauma and incarceration.


This participatory action research report is collectively put together by the Safe Return Community and puts forth a set of recommendations to stop arresting trauma and start providing care to address trauma in our community of women, girls and gender non-conforming individuals.



Fulfilling health and safety needs in Richmond relies on the community creating an effective system for receiving and reintegrating residents returning from incarceration. We envision a Richmond where community members involved in the criminal justice system have strong relationships with their

families and that their communities have real opportunities for sustainable employment, stable housing, and access to the information and services that lead people to the necessities for building successful lives.

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Mass incarceration presents one of the great threats to the future of American democracy and shared prosperity. At the same time, this crisis presents a tremendous opportunity to build strategic alliances that helps transform our region, state, and country. 

Today, more than half of California's counties are investing funding they received from the state to build or expand their

local jails. Contra Costa County is the first county in the state of California to defeat a proposed jail expansion and has invested in an ambitious strategy to build pathways to self-sufficiency and lifelong liberty that shuts the revolving door to prison. We believe that there are important lessons from the organizing and movement-building experience in Contra Costa County that can help to inform a powerful movement to dismantle mass incarceration and expand freedom and opportunity to the most marginalized communities in California. It is critical to understand that the current conditions are neither natural, rational, inevitable nor sustainable. They can only be resolved by  sustained confrontation and dialogue about our values and a commitment to live in a multiracial and equitable democracy. This is not a technical challenge about planning and policy, but rather a more fundamental exploration of the essential questions of racial equity, control, and power in California.

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For both practical and psychological reasons, gainful and steady employment after incarceration is a critical pathway toward community reintegration. A job immediately provides formerly incarcerated people with much needed money.

Without a source of income, they must rely on others for shelter, food, and other basic needs; those without family or friends to rely on may not have these needs met at all. 


Under dire economic circumstances, individuals have a very real incentive to turn to illegal activities - for some, the same ones that may have landed them in prison or jail in the first place. But a job presents formerly incarcerated persons with more than just financial means. On a symbolic level, finding and holding a job sends a strong signal to one’s family and community that one is 

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Finding a secure place to sleep is often the foremost concern the first night out of a correctional institution. Lack of a stable home and mailing address is not only a housing issue, but also creates obstacles to obtaining a job, developing positive relationships, and avoiding re-incarceration. Research has found that housing serves as a  platform for successful reintegration after incarceration.

In the immediate term, the most available housing arrangement might be with a friend or family member—indeed, surveys of individuals a few months out of prison found that most stay with relatives or acquaintances in the period immediately after release. In the long term, the most suitable housing arrangement will depend on the circumstances of the individual. Formerly incarcerated persons who have healthy family relationships would greatly benefit from being able to stay with parents, siblings, partners, or children. Those struggling with substance abuse may be best supported by a well-run residential treatment program. Renting or leasing housing on the public or private market may be the best option for individuals with greater self-sufficiency. Whatever the arrangement, procuring housing is integral to the reintegration of formerly incarcerated individuals in their communities.

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Case Study with the UC Berkeley HAAS Institute now Othering and Belonging Institute on Safe Return's work, best practices, and key lessons from much of the last decade.

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The goal of this report is to identify and address issues in the West Contra Costa County school district in regards to the school to prison pipeline, juvenile incarceration, heavy school policing, and lack of resources and support for parents with students returning from incarceration impacted by the justice system.

This report is part of a series that shares the findings and

recommendations arising from Safe Return research and engagement with thousands of community members, service providers, elected officials, community stakeholders, and others. In addition to this report, the other topics in the series are:

• Rebuilding Family and Community Ties

• Employment and Community Reintegration

• Public Benefits and Essential Reentry Services

• Access to Quality Health Services after Incarceration

• Mass Incarceration and Community Reintegration

• Community Reintegration and Assembly Bill 109 Realignment

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The Collective Impact Leadership Institute fosters leadership among adults and youth who have been directly impacted by the criminal justice system. The Collective Impact Leadership Institute is committed to investing in the personal transformation of all of its students.

The goal is to equip them with the leadership, civic engagement, and community organizing skills to thrive and be change-makers in their community. 

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